Napoleon erklärte sich für Amerifa als seinen künftigen Aufenthalt. aber Becker ers klärte, er habe blos den Auftrag, für Napoleons Sia cherheit Sorge zu. Ankunft Napoleons in Plymouth. — Vorgänge auf dem,Bellerophon'. -- St. Helena als Ort der Gefangenschaft bestimmt. — Napoleons Weigerung dorthin zu. Kaum dem Knabenalter entwachsen macht Napoleon, als gemet. ner Artillerieofficier feine ersten Waffenversuche unter den Mauern von Toulon: er feßt seine.
Napoleon BonaparteNapoleon Bonaparte, als Kaiser Napoleon I. (französisch Napoléon Bonaparte bzw. Napoléon Ier; * August in Ajaccio auf Korsika als Napoleone. Hans-Gert Roloff Napoleon im Drama des Jahrhunderts und bei Carl Hauptmann I. Die Spuren, die Napoleon in der deutschen Literatur hinterlassen hat1. Ankunft Napoleons in Plymouth. — Vorgänge auf dem,Bellerophon'. -- St. Helena als Ort der Gefangenschaft bestimmt. — Napoleons Weigerung dorthin zu.
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The Duke was quickly executed after a secret military trial, even though he had not been involved in the plot. To expand his power, Napoleon used these assassination plots to justify the creation of an imperial system based on the Roman model.
He believed that a Bourbon restoration would be more difficult if his family's succession was entrenched in the constitution. Napoleon's coronation, at which Pope Pius VII officiated, took place at Notre Dame de Paris , on 2 December Two separate crowns were brought for the ceremony: a golden laurel wreath recalling the Roman Empire and a replica of Charlemagne's crown.
He created eighteen Marshals of the Empire from among his top generals to secure the allegiance of the army on 18 May , the official start of the Empire.
Great Britain had broken the Peace of Amiens by declaring war on France in May By April , Britain had also signed an alliance with Russia.
He intended to use this invasion force to strike at England. They never invaded, but Napoleon's troops received careful and invaluable training for future military operations.
At the start, this French army had about , men organized into seven corps , which were large field units that contained 36—40 cannons each and were capable of independent action until other corps could come to the rescue.
On top of these forces, Napoleon created a cavalry reserve of 22, organized into two cuirassier divisions , four mounted dragoon divisions, one division of dismounted dragoons, and one of light cavalry, all supported by 24 artillery pieces.
Napoleon knew that the French fleet could not defeat the Royal Navy in a head-to-head battle, so he planned to lure it away from the English Channel through diversionary tactics.
In the face of this attack, it was hoped, the British would weaken their defence of the Western Approaches by sending ships to the Caribbean, allowing a combined Franco-Spanish fleet to take control of the channel long enough for French armies to cross and invade.
By August , Napoleon had realized that the strategic situation had changed fundamentally. Facing a potential invasion from his continental enemies, he decided to strike first and turned his army's sights from the English Channel to the Rhine.
His basic objective was to destroy the isolated Austrian armies in Southern Germany before their Russian allies could arrive. Austrian commander Karl Mack had gathered the greater part of the Austrian army at the fortress of Ulm in Swabia.
The Ulm Maneuver completely surprised General Mack, who belatedly understood that his army had been cut off. After some minor engagements that culminated in the Battle of Ulm , Mack finally surrendered after realizing that there was no way to break out of the French encirclement.
For just 2, French casualties, Napoleon had managed to capture a total of 60, Austrian soldiers through his army's rapid marching.
The Ulm Campaign is generally regarded as a strategic masterpiece and was influential in the development of the Schlieffen Plan in the late 19th century.
After Trafalgar, Britain had total domination of the seas for the duration of the Napoleonic Wars. Following the Ulm Campaign, French forces managed to capture Vienna in November.
The fall of Vienna provided the French a huge bounty as they captured , muskets, cannons, and the intact bridges across the Danube. Napoleon sent his army north in pursuit of the Allies, but then ordered his forces to retreat so that he could feign a grave weakness.
Desperate to lure the Allies into battle, Napoleon gave every indication in the days preceding the engagement that the French army was in a pitiful state, even abandoning the dominant Pratzen Heights near the village of Austerlitz.
At the Battle of Austerlitz , in Moravia on 2 December, he deployed the French army below the Pratzen Heights and deliberately weakened his right flank, enticing the Allies to launch a major assault there in the hopes of rolling up the whole French line.
A forced march from Vienna by Marshal Davout and his III Corps plugged the gap left by Napoleon just in time.
Meanwhile, the heavy Allied deployment against the French right flank weakened their center on the Pratzen Heights, which was viciously attacked by the IV Corps of Marshal Soult.
With the Allied center demolished, the French swept through both enemy flanks and sent the Allies fleeing chaotically, capturing thousands of prisoners in the process.
The battle is often seen as a tactical masterpiece because of the near-perfect execution of a calibrated but dangerous plan—of the same stature as Cannae , the celebrated triumph by Hannibal some 2, years before.
The Allied disaster at Austerlitz significantly shook the faith of Emperor Francis in the British-led war effort.
France and Austria agreed to an armistice immediately and the Treaty of Pressburg followed shortly after on 26 December.
The treaty confirmed the Austrian loss of lands to France in Italy and Bavaria , and lands in Germany to Napoleon's German allies.
Napoleon went on to say, "The battle of Austerlitz is the finest of all I have fought". Napoleon continued to entertain a grand scheme to establish a French presence in the Middle East in order to put pressure on Britain and Russia, and perhaps form an alliance with the Ottoman Empire.
He also opted for an alliance with France, calling France "our sincere and natural ally". It collapsed in , when France and Russia themselves formed an unexpected alliance.
After Austerlitz, Napoleon established the Confederation of the Rhine in A collection of German states intended to serve as a buffer zone between France and Central Europe, the creation of the Confederation spelled the end of the Holy Roman Empire and significantly alarmed the Prussians.
The brazen reorganization of German territory by the French risked threatening Prussian influence in the region, if not eliminating it outright.
War fever in Berlin rose steadily throughout the summer of At the insistence of his court, especially his wife Queen Louise , Frederick William III decided to challenge the French domination of Central Europe by going to war.
The initial military manoeuvres began in September Napoleon invaded Prussia with , troops, rapidly marching on the right bank of the River Saale.
As in previous campaigns, his fundamental objective was to destroy one opponent before reinforcements from another could tip the balance of the war.
Upon learning the whereabouts of the Prussian army, the French swung westwards and crossed the Saale with overwhelming force.
At the twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt , fought on 14 October, the French convincingly defeated the Prussians and inflicted heavy casualties.
With several major commanders dead or incapacitated, the Prussian king proved incapable of effectively commanding the army, which began to quickly disintegrate.
In a vaunted pursuit that epitomized the "peak of Napoleonic warfare", according to historian Richard Brooks,  the French managed to capture , soldiers, over 2, cannons and hundreds of ammunition wagons, all in a single month.
Historian David Chandler wrote of the Prussian forces: "Never has the morale of any army been more completely shattered".
Following his triumph, Napoleon imposed the first elements of the Continental System through the Berlin Decree issued in November The Continental System, which prohibited European nations from trading with Britain, was widely violated throughout his reign.
On 14 June Napoleon obtained an overwhelming victory over the Russians at the Battle of Friedland , wiping out the majority of the Russian army in a very bloody struggle.
The scale of their defeat convinced the Russians to make peace with the French. On 19 June, Tsar Alexander sent an envoy to seek an armistice with Napoleon.
The latter assured the envoy that the Vistula River represented the natural borders between French and Russian influence in Europe. On that basis, the two emperors began peace negotiations at the town of Tilsit after meeting on an iconic raft on the River Niemen.
The very first thing Alexander said to Napoleon was probably well-calibrated: "I hate the English as much as you do".
Alexander faced pressure from his brother, Duke Constantine , to make peace with Napoleon. Given the victory he had just achieved, the French emperor offered the Russians relatively lenient terms—demanding that Russia join the Continental System, withdraw its forces from Wallachia and Moldavia , and hand over the Ionian Islands to France.
Prussia's humiliating treatment at Tilsit caused a deep and bitter antagonism which festered as the Napoleonic era progressed.
Moreover, Alexander's pretensions at friendship with Napoleon led the latter to seriously misjudge the true intentions of his Russian counterpart, who would violate numerous provisions of the treaty in the next few years.
Despite these problems, the Treaties of Tilsit at last gave Napoleon a respite from war and allowed him to return to France, which he had not seen in over days.
The settlements at Tilsit gave Napoleon time to organize his empire. One of his major objectives became enforcing the Continental System against the British forces.
He decided to focus his attention on the Kingdom of Portugal , which consistently violated his trade prohibitions. After defeat in the War of the Oranges in , Portugal adopted a double-sided policy.
At first, John VI agreed to close his ports to British trade. The situation changed dramatically after the Franco-Spanish defeat at Trafalgar; John grew bolder and officially resumed diplomatic and trade relations with Britain.
Unhappy with this change of policy by the Portuguese government, Napoleon negotiated a secret treaty with Charles IV of Spain and sent an army to invade Portugal.
Throughout the winter of , French agents became increasingly involved in Spanish internal affairs, attempting to incite discord between members of the Spanish royal family.
On 16 February , secret French machinations finally materialized when Napoleon announced that he would intervene to mediate between the rival political factions in the country.
Marshal Murat led , troops into Spain. The French arrived in Madrid on 24 March,  where wild riots against the occupation erupted just a few weeks later.
Napoleon appointed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte , as the new King of Spain in the summer of The appointment enraged a heavily religious and conservative Spanish population.
Resistance to French aggression soon spread throughout Spain. Before going to Iberia, Napoleon decided to address several lingering issues with the Russians.
At the Congress of Erfurt in October , Napoleon hoped to keep Russia on his side during the upcoming struggle in Spain and during any potential conflict against Austria.
The two sides reached an agreement, the Erfurt Convention, that called upon Britain to cease its war against France, that recognized the Russian conquest of Finland from Sweden and made it an autonomous Grand Duchy ,  and that affirmed Russian support for France in a possible war against Austria "to the best of its ability".
Napoleon then returned to France and prepared for war. After clearing the last Spanish force guarding the capital at Somosierra , Napoleon entered Madrid on 4 December with 80, troops.
The British were swiftly driven to the coast, and they withdrew from Spain entirely after a last stand at the Battle of Corunna in January Napoleon would end up leaving Iberia in order to deal with the Austrians in Central Europe, but the Peninsular War continued on long after his absence.
He never returned to Spain after the campaign. Several months after Corunna, the British sent another army to the peninsula under the future Duke of Wellington.
The war then settled into a complex and asymmetric strategic deadlock where all sides struggled to gain the upper hand.
The highlight of the conflict became the brutal guerrilla warfare that engulfed much of the Spanish countryside. Both sides committed the worst atrocities of the Napoleonic Wars during this phase of the conflict.
The vicious guerrilla fighting in Spain, largely absent from the French campaigns in Central Europe, severely disrupted the French lines of supply and communication.
Although France maintained roughly , troops in Iberia during the Peninsular War, the vast majority were tied down to garrison duty and to intelligence operations.
After the invasion of Russia in , the number of French troops in Spain vastly declined as Napoleon needed reinforcements to conserve his strategic position in Europe.
By , after scores of battles and sieges throughout Iberia, the Allies had managed to push the French out of the peninsula.
The impact of the Napoleonic invasion of Spain and ousting of the Spanish Bourbon monarchy in favour of his brother Joseph had an enormous impact on the Spanish empire.
In Spanish America many local elites formed juntas and set up mechanisms to rule in the name of Ferdinand VII of Spain , whom they considered the legitimate Spanish monarch.
The outbreak of the Spanish American wars of independence in most of the empire was a result of Napoleon's destabilizing actions in Spain and led to the rise of strongmen in the wake of these wars.
After four years on the sidelines, Austria sought another war with France to avenge its recent defeats. Austria could not count on Russian support because the latter was at war with Britain , Sweden , and the Ottoman Empire in Frederick William of Prussia initially promised to help the Austrians, but reneged before conflict began.
In the early morning of 10 April, leading elements of the Austrian army crossed the Inn River and invaded Bavaria. The early Austrian attack surprised the French; Napoleon himself was still in Paris when he heard about the invasion.
Charles pressed the left wing of the French army and hurled his men towards the III Corps of Marshal Davout. In response, Napoleon came up with a plan to cut off the Austrians in the celebrated Landshut Maneuver.
The French scored a convincing win in the resulting Battle of Eckmühl , forcing Charles to withdraw his forces over the Danube and into Bohemia.
On 13 May, Vienna fell for the second time in four years, although the war continued since most of the Austrian army had survived the initial engagements in Southern Germany.
By 17 May, the main Austrian army under Charles had arrived on the Marchfeld. Charles kept the bulk of his troops several kilometres away from the river bank in hopes of concentrating them at the point where Napoleon decided to cross.
On 21 May, the French made their first major effort to cross the Danube, precipitating the Battle of Aspern-Essling.
The Austrians enjoyed a comfortable numerical superiority over the French throughout the battle. On the first day, Charles disposed of , soldiers against only 31, commanded by Napoleon.
The battle was characterized by a vicious back-and-forth struggle for the two villages of Aspern and Essling, the focal points of the French bridgehead.
By the end of the fighting, the French had lost Aspern but still controlled Essling. A sustained Austrian artillery bombardment eventually convinced Napoleon to withdraw his forces back onto Lobau Island.
Both sides inflicted about 23, casualties on each other. After the setback at Aspern-Essling, Napoleon took more than six weeks in planning and preparing for contingencies before he made another attempt at crossing the Danube.
Napoleon finished off the battle with a concentrated central thrust that punctured a hole in the Austrian army and forced Charles to retreat.
Austrian losses were very heavy, reaching well over 40, casualties. In the Kingdom of Holland , the British launched the Walcheren Campaign to open up a second front in the war and to relieve the pressure on the Austrians.
The British army only landed at Walcheren on 30 July, by which point the Austrians had already been defeated. The Walcheren Campaign was characterized by little fighting but heavy casualties thanks to the popularly dubbed " Walcheren Fever ".
Over British troops were lost in a bungled campaign, and the rest withdrew in December Emperor Francis wanted to wait and see how the British performed in their theatre before entering into negotiations with Napoleon.
Once it became apparent that the British were going nowhere, the Austrians agreed to peace talks. The resulting Treaty of Schönbrunn in October was the harshest that France had imposed on Austria in recent memory.
Metternich and Archduke Charles had the preservation of the Habsburg Empire as their fundamental goal, and to this end they succeeded by making Napoleon seek more modest goals in return for promises of friendship between the two powers.
Napoleon turned his focus to domestic affairs after the war. Hoping to cement the recent alliance with Austria through a family connection, Napoleon married the Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma , daughter of Francis II , who was 18 years old at the time.
On 20 March , Marie Louise gave birth to a baby boy, whom Napoleon made heir apparent and bestowed the title of King of Rome.
In , Napoleon and Tsar Alexander met at the Congress of Erfurt to preserve the Russo-French alliance. The leaders had a friendly personal relationship after their first meeting at Tilsit in By , advisers to Alexander suggested the possibility of an invasion of the French Empire and the recapture of Poland.
In an attempt to gain increased support from Polish nationalists and patriots, Napoleon termed the war the Second Polish War —the First Polish War had been the Bar Confederation uprising by Polish nobles against Russia in Polish patriots wanted the Russian part of Poland to be joined with the Duchy of Warsaw and an independent Poland created.
This was rejected by Napoleon, who stated he had promised his ally Austria this would not happen. Napoleon refused to manumit the Russian serfs because of concerns this might provoke a reaction in his army's rear.
The serfs later committed atrocities against French soldiers during France's retreat. The Russians avoided Napoleon's objective of a decisive engagement and instead retreated deeper into Russia.
A brief attempt at resistance was made at Smolensk in August; the Russians were defeated in a series of battles, and Napoleon resumed his advance.
The Russians again avoided battle, although in a few cases this was only achieved because Napoleon uncharacteristically hesitated to attack when the opportunity arose.
Owing to the Russian army's scorched earth tactics, the French found it increasingly difficult to forage food for themselves and their horses.
The Russians eventually offered battle outside Moscow on 7 September: the Battle of Borodino resulted in approximately 44, Russian and 35, French dead, wounded or captured, and may have been the bloodiest day of battle in history up to that point in time.
Napoleon's own account was: "The most terrible of all my battles was the one before Moscow. The French showed themselves to be worthy of victory, but the Russians showed themselves worthy of being invincible".
The Russian army withdrew and retreated past Moscow. Napoleon entered the city, assuming its fall would end the war and Alexander would negotiate peace.
However, on orders of the city's governor Feodor Rostopchin , rather than capitulation, Moscow was burned. After five weeks, Napoleon and his army left.
In early November Napoleon got concerned about loss of control back in France after the Malet coup of After the Battle of Berezina Napoleon managed to escape but had to abandon much of the remaining artillery and baggage train.
On 5 December, shortly before arriving in Vilnius, Napoleon left the army in a sledge. The French suffered in the course of a ruinous retreat, including from the harshness of the Russian Winter.
There was a lull in fighting over the winter of —13 while both the Russians and the French rebuilt their forces; Napoleon was able to field , troops.
Napoleon assumed command in Germany and inflicted a series of defeats on the Coalition culminating in the Battle of Dresden in August Despite these successes, the numbers continued to mount against Napoleon, and the French army was pinned down by a force twice its size and lost at the Battle of Leipzig.
This was by far the largest battle of the Napoleonic Wars and cost more than 90, casualties in total. The Allies offered peace terms in the Frankfurt proposals in November Napoleon would remain as Emperor of the French, but it would be reduced to its "natural frontiers".
That meant that France could retain control of Belgium, Savoy and the Rhineland the west bank of the Rhine River , while giving up control of all the rest, including all of Spain and the Netherlands, and most of Italy and Germany.
Metternich told Napoleon these were the best terms the Allies were likely to offer; after further victories, the terms would be harsher and harsher.
Metternich's motivation was to maintain France as a balance against Russian threats, while ending the highly destabilizing series of wars.
Napoleon, expecting to win the war, delayed too long and lost this opportunity; by December the Allies had withdrawn the offer. When his back was to the wall in he tried to reopen peace negotiations on the basis of accepting the Frankfurt proposals.
The Allies now had new, harsher terms that included the retreat of France to its boundaries, which meant the loss of Belgium.
Napoleon would remain Emperor, however he rejected the term. The British wanted Napoleon permanently removed, and they prevailed, but Napoleon adamantly refused.
Napoleon withdrew back into France, his army reduced to 70, soldiers and little cavalry; he faced more than three times as many Allied troops.
Napoleon won a series of victories in the Six Days' Campaign , though these were not significant enough to turn the tide.
The leaders of Paris surrendered to the Coalition in March Long docile to Napoleon, under Talleyrand's prodding it had turned against him. Napoleon had advanced as far as Fontainebleau when he learned that Paris was lost.
When Napoleon proposed the army march on the capital, his senior officers and marshals mutinied. When Napoleon asserted the army would follow him, Ney replied the army would follow its generals.
While the ordinary soldiers and regimental officers wanted to fight on, the senior commanders were unwilling to continue.
Without any senior officers or marshals any prospective invasion of Paris would have been impossible. Bowing to the inevitable, on 4 April Napoleon abdicated in favour of his son, with Marie Louise as regent.
However, the Allies refused to accept this under prodding from Alexander, who feared that Napoleon might find an excuse to retake the throne.
The Allied Powers having declared that Emperor Napoleon was the sole obstacle to the restoration of peace in Europe, Emperor Napoleon, faithful to his oath, declares that he renounces, for himself and his heirs, the thrones of France and Italy, and that there is no personal sacrifice, even that of his life, which he is not ready to make in the interests of France.
Done in the palace of Fontainebleau, 11 April They gave him sovereignty over the island and allowed him to retain the title of Emperor.
Napoleon attempted suicide with a pill he had carried after nearly being captured by the Russians during the retreat from Moscow.
Its potency had weakened with age, however, and he survived to be exiled, while his wife and son took refuge in Austria. He was conveyed to the island on HMS Undaunted by Captain Thomas Ussher , and he arrived at Portoferraio on 30 May In the first few months on Elba he created a small navy and army, developed the iron mines, oversaw the construction of new roads, issued decrees on modern agricultural methods, and overhauled the island's legal and educational system.
A few months into his exile, Napoleon learned that his ex-wife Josephine had died in France. He was devastated by the news, locking himself in his room and refusing to leave for two days.
Separated from his wife and son, who had returned to Austria, cut off from the allowance guaranteed to him by the Treaty of Fontainebleau, and aware of rumours he was about to be banished to a remote island in the Atlantic Ocean,  Napoleon escaped from Elba in the brig Inconstant on 26 February with men.
The 5th Regiment was sent to intercept him and made contact just south of Grenoble on 7 March Napoleon approached the regiment alone, dismounted his horse and, when he was within gunshot range, shouted to the soldiers, "Here I am.
Kill your Emperor, if you wish. The two then marched together toward Paris with a growing army. The unpopular Louis XVIII fled to Belgium after realizing that he had little political support.
On 13 March, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared Napoleon an outlaw. Four days later, Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia each pledged to put , men into the field to end his rule.
Napoleon arrived in Paris on 20 March and governed for a period now called the Hundred Days. By the start of June the armed forces available to him had reached ,, and he decided to go on the offensive to attempt to drive a wedge between the oncoming British and Prussian armies.
The French Army of the North crossed the frontier into the United Kingdom of the Netherlands , in modern-day Belgium.
Napoleon's forces fought two Coalition armies, commanded by the British Duke of Wellington and the Prussian Prince Blücher , at the Battle of Waterloo on 18 June Wellington's army withstood repeated attacks by the French and drove them from the field while the Prussians arrived in force and broke through Napoleon's right flank.
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Transfer to a baking sheet; dock, or pierce, the dough all over with a fork. Cover with plastic wrap; place in refrigerator 1 hour.
Preheat oven to degrees. Transfer to oven; bake until strips are puffed and golden all over, about 14 minutes.
Set a baking sheet directly on pastry strips, and continue baking until pastry is cooked through and well browned, about 6 minutes. Remove top baking sheet; bake 4 minutes more.
Transfer to a wire rack to cool completely. Make the glaze: In a small saucepan, bring heavy cream just to a boil. Place dark chocolate in a bowl, and pour hot cream over chocolate; whisk until chocolate is melted and mixture is combined.
I "buttered" the top and bottom of the center pastry and very much liked the color contrast. Also used thin stripes of blackberry on the top.
I served it cool not cold and it fit a summer dinner fine. THIS RECIPE WAS OUT OF BOUNDS WOULD I MAKE IT AGAIN.. ABSOLUTLY MY DAD AND I LOVED IT Read More.
Rating: 3 stars. I made this for my daughter's Paris birthday party. It looked really beautiful but only a few of the kids actually liked it. I thought it was ok.
I think it might have been better if the puff pastry was baked at a higher temp. Doris McGillick. Good recipe.
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Amount is based on available nutrient data. If you are following a medically restrictive diet, please consult your doctor or registered dietitian before preparing this recipe for personal consumption.
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